Posted on Leave a comment

Digestive system


The energy required for all the processes and activities that take place in our bodies is derived from the foods we ingest. The digestive system allows us to utilize food from such diverse sources as meat from an animal and the roots of a plant, and utilize them as an energy source. Whether it is the ability to coordinate the chewing of the food without injuring our tongue and lips or the propulsion of the food from the stomach into the duodenum while releasing the appropriate enzymes, our digestive system allows us to manage the process without much thought and often while performing other tasks.


1.   Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair.2.   Digestion works by moving food through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.3.   Digestion begins in the mouth with chewing and ends in the small intestine.4.  Molecules of food to break down into smaller molecules. The body then absorbs these smaller molecules through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream, which delivers them to the rest of the body.5.   Waste products of digestion pass through the large intestine and out of the body as a solid matter called stool.6.   The small intestine absorbs most digested food molecules, as well as water and minerals, and passes them on to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change. Hormone and nerve regulators control the digestive process.


1. Stomach: With age, the stomach lining's capacity to resist damage decreases, which in turn may increase the risk of peptic ulcer disease, especially in people who use aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Also with age, the stomach cannot accommodate as much food (because of decreased elasticity), and the rate at which the stomach empties food into the small intestine decreases. However, these changes typically do not cause any noticeable symptoms. Ageing has little effect on the secretion of stomach juices such as acid and pepsin, but conditions that decrease acid secretion, such as atrophic gastric, become more common.

2. Small intestine:  Aging has only minor effects on the structure of the small intestine, so movement of contents through the small intestine and absorption of most nutrients do not change much. However, lactase levels decrease, leading to intolerance of dairy products by many older adults (lactose intolerance ). Excessive growth of certain bacteria (bacteria, overgrowth syndrome ) becomes more common with age and can lead to pain, bloating, and weight loss. Bacterial overgrowth may also lead to decreased absorption of certain nutrients, such as vitamin B12, iron, and calcium.

3. Large intestine and rectum:  The large intestine  does not undergo much change with age. The rectum  does enlarge somewhat. Constipation becomes more common (see constipations in adult : essential for older people ), which is caused by many factors:

1. A slight slowing in the movement of contents through the large intestine.2.   A modest decrease in the contractions of the rectum when filled with stool.3.   More frequent use of drugs that can cause constipation. Often less exercise or physical activity. 4.Viral or bacterial infection:  and parasites. Bacteria, viruses and parasites can get into the digestive system by means of contact with contaminated surfaces, or contact with infected stools and then ingesting the germs or from eating infected food or drinking infected water.

5.Structural causes:  A structural abnormality in the digestive system (such as the pouches that develop in the intestines of someone with diverticulitis) can hamper the working of the digestive system. An ulcer in the stomach lining or the intestines would be another example, as would be a cancerous tumor.6. Systemic diseases:  Many systemic diseases affect our gastrointestinal systems, such as autoimmune diseases (i.e. scleroderma that affects the motility of the gut), heart failure (the chronic congestion can cause liver cirrhosis), genetic diseases, HIV and diabetes.


Posted on Leave a comment

Difference between Depression and Anxiety


Sometimes one person has both anxiety and depression. While they both are different medical condition but they share similarities. The causes, symptoms, and treatment of both conditions might be overlaps.
The feel of Depression and Anxiety:
When someone suffering from depression, it seems everything dull and muted. The person also feels very weak, low, everything can feel very slowed down, and thoughts and reaction to everything. Feeling of sadness, hopeless, lack believes that positive things occur, and having suicidal thoughts.

When someone suffering from anxiety everything can feel very heightened. The apprehension of what about happen and what could happen in future. Worried and thought about something that happens could be wrong. Feeling like run away and avoid those things that cause anxiety.
Similarities in Depression and Anxiety
One of the reasons that both the condition have similarity is in both condition the person experience change in the neurosomatic system especially serotonin. Because of these neurosomatic changes they can share symptoms and both contributes to the development of each other. Commonly anxiety cause depression. Both depression and anxiety due to neurosomatic changes can feel natural. Someone having depression rarely thinks that they are suffering from depression because they have set their mind genuinely and whatever they feel their feelings are true. Someone with anxiety often feels the same way, though with anxiety people they accept this very hard that they are suffering from this.
Medicines for Depression and anxiety
Treatment for depression and anxiety vary upon the symptoms and circumstances. However, medication and taking therapies can also cure depression and anxiety. Here is some medicines that can treat both depression and anxiety include:

  1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI): Citalopram (Celexa), Escitalopram Oxalate (Lexapro), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Luvoxamine (Luvox), Paroxetine HRI (Paxil) and Sertraline (Zoloft) these affect other serotonin receptors.
    2.Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine inhibitors (SNRI): Such as Desvenlafaxine(Khedezla), Desvenlafaxine succinate(Pristiq), Duloxetine (Cymbalta), Levomilnacipran (Fetzima) and Venlafaxine (Effexor).
    3.Tetracyclic antidepressant: These are noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant such as Remeron, Elavil, Imipramine (Tofranil), Nortriptyline(Pamelor), and Sinequan.
    4.Monoamine Oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs): Such as Isocarboxazid(Marplan), Phenelzine(Nardil), Selegiline(EMSAM), and tranylcypromine( Parnate).

Your healthcare provider can determine which drug is right for you. Side effects vary or depending upon what type of medication you are taking and may improve once your body adjusts to the medication.

Posted on 2 Comments



Migraine is a neurological condition in which that have many symptoms. Migraine headache is specific psychological changes in the brain. The pain in head accompanied sensitivity with sound, smell and light. This type of headache usually occurs in one side of the head but in some cases, the pain will happen bilaterally on both sides of the head.
Causes of Migraine
There are many causes of the migraine here some are included
Hormones changes: Women may experience migraine during menstruation, menopause, and pregnancy due to the hormones changes such as estrogen, proton fluctuation.
Emotional trigger: Emotional imbalance also causes migration such as stress, depression, anxiety, excitement might be a reason for migration.
Physical causes: Tiredness, stiffness, restless sleep, the tension in shoulder and neck, poor postures, intense physical activity, physical exertion including sexual activity can cause migraine in some people.
Food: Various foods such as aged cheese, preservatives used in smoked meat, artificial sweetener chocolate contain the addictive trying irregular meal time and dehydration also cause migraine.
Drinks: Drinks like alcohol, especially wines and caffeine based drinks that trigger the migraine.
Medication: Some sleeping pills, hormonal replacement therapy medication and the combined contraceptive pills such as nitroglycerin can aggravate migraines.
Symptoms of Migraine

  1. In migraine, many people describe a headache at one side with nausea and sensitivity to light, sound, and smell, in some cases, the pain and discomfort might be bilateral.
  2. The visual disturbance describes as temporary blind that obscures part of the visual field. Flashing light in one or both side of eye has been also described. Numbness and weakness of one side or difficulty in speech occur rarely.
  3. Increasing pain with physical activity or when staining, inability to perform daily routine work.
  4. Constipation, neck stiffness, mood changes, food carving, increasing in thirst and urination and frequent yawning.
  5. In some cases confusion. Dizziness, weakness also occurs.
  6. Pulsing, throbbing and vomiting.
  7. Hearing noise and music, uncomfortable jerking and other movements.

Medicines for Migraine
These medicines are taken at the onset of migration to relieve a headache and reduce its severity.
Painkiller: Some painkiller are commonly used but most of the painkillers should be taken with the prescription of the doctor. Side effects if the consumption of painkillers is for the long term are a heart attack, stroke, kidney damage, and stomach ulcer. The painkillers which remove inflammation and pain are included
⦁Acetaminophen (Excedrin, Tylenol)
⦁Diclofenac (Cataflam)
⦁Ibuprofen ( Advil, Motrin)
⦁Ketorolac (Toradol)
⦁Naproxen ( Aleve)
Ergotamines: Ergotamines are the most commonly prescribed for migraine. They cause blood vessels around the brain contract and relieve migraine within a few minutes. Ergotamines have dangerous side effects such as birth defect and heart problem. If you are pregnant or breastfeeder then does not take ergotamine medicines.
⦁Dihydroergotamine (DHE-45, Migranal)
⦁Ergotamine ( Ergomar)
⦁ Ergotamine and caffeine ( Cafatine, Cafergot, Cafetrate, Migergot, Wigraine)
⦁Methysergide (Sansert)
⦁Methylergonovine (Methergine)
Triptans: Triptans increases serotonin levels in the brain, reduce inflammation and constricting vessels in the brain and effectively ending the migraine. Some possible side effects of triptans are dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, tingling in the toes and tighten and discomfort in the chest.
⦁Almotriptan (Axert)
⦁Eletriptan ( Relpax)
⦁Frovatriptan (Frova)
⦁Naratriptan (Amerge)
Opioids: Opioids are more powerful medicines in painkiller. Many painkillers are combined with opioids. There is a risk of opioids that it is addicted medicine that is why these are prescribed sparingly.
⦁Meperidine (Demerol)
⦁Oxycodone (Oxycontin)
Home remedies for Migraine
Ginger: Ginger is an instant remedy that helps to reduce inflammation of blood vessels in the head, stimulate digestion. It helps the quell nausea that occurs during the migraine. You can take the ginger powder, ginger slice and ginger juice with honey in your eating habit which gives you quick relief.
Cinnamon: Cinnamon is a quick reply of headache. Grind some sticks of cinnamon and add some water to make a thick paste. Apply it on the forehead and lie down for 30 minutes. Then wash it off with luckier water.
Cloves: Cloves are used to treat throbbing head due to it's cooling and pain relieving properties. Crush some cloves and put them in a clean cloth then inhale the smell of cloves until you feel relief from the pain. And you can also apply a few drops of clove oil on the forehead.
Basile: Basile is used for natural treatment of headache, it has many analgesic benefits. The basil contains oil which helps to relaxant muscles and gets rid of the headache. You can make tea with basil leaves and take little sips of hot tea that makes you feel better.
Physical activities: Yoga, breathing exercise, stretching exercise, meditation and get in moving in a way that can you drop the tension. Regular practicing yoga can help to get rid of the migraine.