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Dehydration occurs when you use or lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don’t replace lost fluids, you will get dehydrated. Anyone may become dehydrated, but the condition is especially dangerous for young children and older adults.

The most common cause of dehydration in young children is severe diarrhea and vomiting. Older adults have a lower volume of water in their bodies and may have conditions or take medications that increase the risk of dehydration. This means that even minor illnesses, such as infections affecting the lungs or bladder, can result in dehydration in older adults.

Dehydration also can occur in any age group if you don’t drink enough water during hot weather especially if you are exercising. You can usually reverse mild to moderate dehydration by drinking more fluids, but severe dehydration needs immediate medical treatment.

Many people, particularly older adults, don’t feel thirsty until they’re already dehydrated. That’s why it’s important to increase water intake during hot weather or when you’re ill.


The signs and symptoms of dehydration also may differ by age.
Infant or young child
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • No tears when crying
  • No wet diapers for three hours
  • Sunken eyes, cheeks
  • Sunken soft spot on top of skull
  • Listlessness or irritability
  • Extreme thirst
  • Less frequent urination
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • feeling thirsty
  • dry mouth and sticky feeling
  • decreased urination
  • dark yellow urine
  • dry and cold skin
  • headache muscle cramps
  • headaches.
  • being unable to focus or concentrate.
  • passing darker urine than usual.
  • tiredness or fatigue.
  • muscle weakness and cramps.
  • constipation.
  • dry, flaky skin.
  • altered kidney, heart, or digestive function


  • Muscle weakness.
  • Lethargy.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Headaches or dizziness.
  • An inability to sweat.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Rapid heart rate.
  • Fatigue.


Sometimes dehydration occurs for simple reasons: You don’t drink enough because you’re sick or busy, or because you lack access to safe drinking water when you’re traveling, hiking, or camping.

Other dehydration causes include:
  • Diarrhea, vomiting- Severe, acute diarrhea that is, diarrhea that comes on and can cause a tremendous loss of water and electrolytes in a short amount of time. If you have vomiting along with diarrhea, you lose even more fluids and minerals.
  • Fever-In general, the higher your fever, the more dehydrated you may become. The problem worsens if you have a fever also to diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Excessive sweating-You lose water when you sweat. If you do vigorous activity and don’t replace fluids as you go along, you can become dehydrated. Hot, humid weather increases the amount you sweat and the amount of fluid you lose.
  • Increased urination- This may be due to undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes. Certain medications, such as diuretics and some blood pressure medications, also can lead to dehydration, generally because they cause you to urinate more.


Anyone can become dehydrated, but certain people are at greater risk:
  • Infants and children- The most likely group to experience severe diarrhea and vomiting, infants and children are especially vulnerable to dehydration. Having a higher surface area to volume area, they also lose a higher proportion of their fluids from a high fever or burns. Young children often can’t tell you that they’re thirsty, nor can they get a drink for themselves.
  • Older adults- As you age, your body’s fluid reserve becomes smaller, your ability to conserve water is reduced and your thirst sense becomes less acute. These problems are compounded by chronic illnesses such as diabetes and dementia, and by the use of certain medications. Older adults also may have mobility problems that limit their ability to get water for themselves.
  • People with chronic illnesses- Having uncontrolled or untreated diabetes puts you at high risk of dehydration. Kidney disease also increases your risk, as do medications that increase urination. Even having a cold or sore throat makes you more susceptible to dehydration because you’re less likely to feel like eating or drinking when you’re sick.
  • People who work or exercise outside- When it’s hot and humid, also your risk of dehydration and heat illness increases. That’s because when the air is humid, also sweat can’t evaporate and cool you as as it does, and this can lead to an increased body temperature and the need for more fluids.


Dehydration can lead to serious complications, including:
  • Heat injury-If you don’t drink enough fluids when you’re exercising vigorously and perspiring heavily, you may end up with a head injury, also ranging in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion or potentially life-threatening heatstroke.
  • Urinary and kidney problems- Prolonged or repeated bouts of dehydration can cause urinary tract infections, include kidney stones, and even kidney failure.
  • Seizures. Electrolytes such as potassium and sodium help carry electrical signals from cell to cell. If your electrolytes are out of balance, the normal electrical messages can become mixed up, which can lead to involuntary muscle contractions and sometimes to a loss of consciousness.
  • Low blood volume shock (hypovolemic shock)- This is one of the most serious, and sometimes life-threatening, complications of dehydration. It occurs when low blood volume causes a drop in blood pressure and a drop in the amount of oxygen in your body.


The most important treatment for dehydration is to prevent the condition from occurring. Drinking plenty of fluids and eating foods and fruits that have a good water content can be a great way to prevent dehydration.

During extreme heat conditions, a person must be very cautious to perform activities that put stress on the body. If a person is exercising in the summer season then he should consume fluids to make up for the water lost during exercise in the form of sweat.

Since children and elderly people are at an increased risk of suffering from dehydration conditions, special attention needs to be given to them so that they take an adequate amount of fluids.
  • Dehydration can only be treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes. The optimal strategy to dehydration treatment is determined on the patient’s age, also the degree of the dehydration, and the source of the dehydration.
  • Use an over-the-counter oral re hydration solution for infants and children who have been dehydrated due to diarrhoea, vomiting, or a fever. These solutions include specified proportions of water and salts to restore both fluids and electrolytes.
  • Start with a teaspoon (5 ml) every one to five minutes and gradually increase as tolerated. For very young children, a syringe may be more convenient. Diluted sports drinks can be given to older children. To make a sports drink, also mix 1 part sports drink with 1 part water.
  • Most individuals who are dehydrated due to diarrhea, vomiting, or fever can improve their situation by drinking more water or other liquids. Full-strength fruit juice and soft drinks might aggravate diarrhoea.
  • Cool water is your best bet if you work or exercise outside in hot or humid conditions. Electrolyte- and carbohydrate-containing sports drinks may also be beneficial.
  • Don’t use too much salt.


Chronic or severe dehydration or dehydration is a medical emergency. If you feel extremely tired, confused or disoriented, go to the nearest emergency room as soon as possible.

Your doctor may administer an intravenous drip to make up for the lost salts and minerals in your body, and may also conduct some tests to find out what causes dehydration.

You can seek medical emergency service if you notice any of the following symptoms:

  • Dizziness upon standing, and the dizziness does not stop after a few seconds.
  • No urination throughout the day.
  • Pulse too fast or too slow.
  • throw a fit.


  • Drinking buttermilk is a great option as it not only restores electrolyte imbalance but is also a probiotic.
  • Drinking barley water can be a very healthy option as it restores the body with various minerals, vitamins and antioxidants but it also helps in restoring lost fluids.
  • Coconut water is a rich source of sodium and potassium which are often depleted if a person is suffering from dehydration.
  • Drinking barley water can be a very healthy option as it restores the body with various minerals, vitamins and antioxidants but it also helps in restoring lost fluids.
  • Coconut water is a rich source of sodium and potassium which are often depleted if a person is suffering from dehydration.


To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids and eat foods high in water such as fruits and vegetables. Letting thirst be your guide is an adequate daily guideline for most healthy people. People may need to take in more fluids if they are experiencing conditions such as:

  • Vomiting or diarrhea- If your child is vomiting or has diarrhea, start giving extra water or an oral rehydration solution at the first signs of illness. Don’t wait until dehydration occurs.
  • Strenuous exercise- In general, it’s best to start hydrating the day before strenuous exercise. Including Producing lots of clear, dilute urine is a good indication that you’re well-hydrated. During the activity, also replenish fluids at regular intervals and continue drinking water or other fluids after you’re finished.
  • Hot or cold weather- You need to drink additional water in hot or humid weather to help lower your body temperature and to replace what you lose through sweating. You may also need extra water in cold weather to combat moisture loss from dry air, particularly at higher altitudes

Illness- Older adults most commonly become dehydrated during minor illnesses such as influenza, bronchitis, or bladder infections. Make sure to drink extra fluids when you’re not feeling well.

17 thoughts on “DEHYDRATION”

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