Types of Diabetes and Treatment

When insulin (sugar) reaches the pancreas of the body, the level of glucose in the blood increases. This condition is called diabetes. Insulin is a hormone made by the digestive gland. Its function is to convert food inside the body into energy. This is the hormone that controls the amount of sugar in our body.

In this medical condition, the body has difficulty making energy from food. In this situation, increased levels of glucose start damaging various organs of the body.

This medical condition is more common in men than women. This medical condition is mostly hereditary and due to lifestyle deterioration. In this, hereditary type-1 and diabetes due to irregular lifestyle are placed in the type-2 category.

Also, if you reduce physical exertion, do not sleep properly, have irregular eating, and consume mostly fast food and sweet foods then the chances of an increase in sugar levels in the body.

Type 1 diabetes

In this type of diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas are completely destroyed and thus insulin is not possible to form. It is caused by genetic, auto-immune, and some viral infections, due to which beta cells are completely destroyed in childhood. This disease is usually seen in the age of less than 12 to 25 years.

Type 1 Symptoms

In type 1 , increasing the amount of sugar causes the patient to urinate frequently, due to excess fluid coming out of the body, the patient feels very thirsty. Due to this, there is also a lack of water in the body, and the patient starts feeling weak, besides, the heartbeat also increases greatly.

Type 2 diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes have a very high blood sugar level which is very difficult to control. In this condition, the victim feels more thirsty, has frequent urination, and has frequent hunger problems. It can happen to anyone, but it is seen more in children. In this kind of medical condition, the body is unable to use insulin properly.

Some people with type 2 diabetes can control their disease by making healthy food choices and becoming physically active. Many people with this kind of condition also need medicines.

Gestational diabetes – This kind of medical condition occurs during pregnancy when the amount of sugar in the blood increases. During this period, pregnant women are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 symptoms

This, due to an increase in the level of blood sugar in the body, there are problems like fatigue, low vision and headache. As the fluid comes out of the body in excess, it makes the patient feel more thirsty. He does not heal quickly when an injury or wound occurs.

Continuous excess of blood sugar affects the eyesight, due to which there is a disease called diabetic retinopathy due to which there is a decrease in eyesight.

Medicines for type 2 diabetes

You may also need medicines along with healthy food and physical activity habits to control your type 2 diabetes. You can take many diabetes medicines with a breathing apparatus. These drugs are called oral medicines.

Metformin 500 mg Medicine

More people with type 2 diabetes begin medical treatment with Metformin tablets. Metformin also comes in liquid form. Metformin reduces the amount of glucose in your liver and helps your body make better use of insulin. This medicine can help you lose a small amount of weight.

Other oral medications work in various ways to reduce glucose levels in the blood. You may need to take another medicine or use a combination treatment after a while. A mixture of two or three types of blood sugar medicines can reduce the level of glucose in the blood more than just once.

Type 2 diabetes treatment

Management of type 2 diabetes includes:

  • Healthy eating
  • Regular exercise
  • Weight loss
  • Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy
  • Blood sugar monitoring

These steps will help keep your blood sugar level closer to normal, which can delay or prevent complications.

Diabetes symptoms

If you have any of the following blood sugar symptoms, see your doctor about getting your blood sugar tested;

  • Urinate (pee) a lot, often at night
  • Are very thirsty
  • Lose weight without trying
  • Are very hungry
  • Have blurry vision
  • Have numb or tingling hands or feet
  • Feel very tired
  • very dry skin
  • Have sores that heal slowly
  • More infections than usual.

Diabetes mellitus

blood sugar mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It’s also your brain’s main source of fuel.

Includes: Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diseases or conditions caused: Diabetic retinopathy.


Prediabetes is a serious health condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 blood sugar. Approximately 88 million American adults—more than 1 in 3—have prediabetes. Of those with prediabetes, more than 84% don’t know they have it.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is first seen in a pregnant woman who did not have blood sugar before she was pregnant. Some women have more than one pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually shows up in the middle of pregnancy.


Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) means there is too much sugar in the blood because the body lacks enough insulin. Associated with blood sugar, hyperglycemia can cause vomiting, excessive hunger and thirst, rapid heartbeat, vision problems, and other symptoms. Untreated hyperglycemia can lead to serious health problems.

Diabetic diet

The food groups are

  • Vegetables
    • non-starchy: includes broccoli, carrots, greens, peppers, and tomatoes
    • starchy: includes potatoes, corn, and green peas
  • Fruits—includes oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes
  • Grains—at least half of your grains for the day should be wholegrains
    • includes wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, and quinoa
    • examples: bread, pasta, cereal, and tortillas
  • Protein
    • lean meat
    • chicken or turkey without the skin
    • fish
    • eggs
    • nuts and peanuts
    • dried beans and certain peas, such as chickpeas and split peas
    • meat substitutes, such as tofu
  • Dairy—nonfat or low-fat
    • milk or lactose-free milk if you have lactose intolerance
    • yogurt
    • Cheese.

Insulin Pump

The device releases insulin almost the way your body naturally would: a steady flow throughout the day and night, called basal insulin, and an extra dose at mealtime, called a bolus, to handle rising blood sugar from the food you eat.

You program the pump for both basal and bolus doses. If you eat more than normal, you can program a larger bolus to cover the carbs in your food. A bolus can bring down high blood sugar at other times, too.

The pump is about the size of a smartphone. You attach it to your body using an infusion set: thin plastic tubing and either a needle or a small tapered tube called a cannula you put under the skin. The place where you put it in — your belly, buttock, or sometimes thigh — is called the infusion site. Some pumps come with inserters for easier placement even in hard-to-reach areas.

Insulin pumps use short-acting and rapid-acting insulin, but not long-acting since the pump is programmed to deliver a small amount continuously to keep your blood sugar levels even.

Normal blood sugar levels 

Normal blood glucose levels for adults, without blood sugar, is 90 to 110 mg/dL. Learn the symptoms of high and low blood sugar here.

Blood glucose levels are the amount of glucose that someone has in their blood at any given time. Having high or low blood sugar levels could indicate an underlying health condition that may require medical attention. Use this overview of normal blood glucose levels to understand what your blood sugar levels mean. 

Types of insulins for diabetes


  • Apidra (insulin glulisine)
  • Fiasp (faster-acting insulin aspart)
  • Humalog (insulin lispro)
  • NovoRapid (insulin aspart)


  • Entuzity (insulin regular)
  • Humulin R, Novolin ge Toronto (insulin regular)


  • Humulin N, Novolin ge NPH(insulin NPH)


  • Basaglar (insulin glargine biosimilar)
  • Lantus (insulin glargine U-100)
  • Levemir (insulin detemir U-300)
  • Toujeo (insulin glargine U-300)
  • Tresiba (Insulin degludec)

Diabetes during pregnancy

During pregnancy—including type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes—can negatively affect the health of women and their babies. For women with type 1 or type 2 blood sugar, high blood sugar around the time of conception increases babies’ risk of birth defects, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Additionally, among women with any type of diabetes, high blood sugar throughout pregnancy increases women’s risk of having a cesarean delivery and increases babies’ risk of being born too large and developing obesity or type 2 blood sugar in the future.

Gestational diabetes mellitus

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)  is a condition in which a hormone made by the placenta prevents the body from using insulin effectively. Glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells.

Unlike type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes is not caused by a lack of insulin, but by other hormones produced during pregnancy that can make insulin less effective, a condition referred to as insulin resistance. Gestational diabetic symptoms disappear following delivery.

Approximately 3 to 8 percent of all pregnant women in the United States are diagnosed with gestational diabetes.

Home remedies for diabetes

Here are 7 veggies that can help keep diabetes under control: 

  • Fenugreek
  • Bitter gourd\ karela
  • Cinnamon
  • Vitamin c
  • Aloe vera
  • Amla or indian gooseberry
  • Drumsticks or moringa.

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